Summary (continued)
With these strategies, pastoralists have contributed to the enhancement of rangeland biodiversity and the long-term conservation of important wildlife habitats. Pastoralists also possess detailed knowledge of rangeland plants and their uses, which could be valuable in the assessment, conservation and utilisation of rangeland biodiversity. Similarly, traditional pastoral rangeland management practices, such as the use of seasonal grassland reserves and livestock mobility, influence vegetation composition, coverage and abundance in rangelands and offer tools for biomass and soil carbon restoration, contributing to the mitigation of climate change. However, various internal and external factors have curtailed traditional management practices and livestock mobility, breaking the co-evolved balance of vegetation, wildlife and land use, thus exposing rangeland to continued livestock pressure, which often leads to degradation. Rather than abandoning pastoralism, the revitalisation of traditional practices and indigenous knowledge is vital to secure sustainable livelihoods for millions of pastoralists and to maintain rangeland biodiversity and ecosystem services.