Summary (continued)
Diagnosis is mainly serological in both humans and animals, based on either a two-tier approach (an immunoenzymatic test followed by a Western blot confirmatory test) in humans or C6 peptide, only in dogs. Early treatment with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or amoxicillin, for three weeks usually reduces the risk of chronic disease. Tick control, including the use of tick repellents for both humans and animals, particularly dogs, is highly reliable in preventing transmission. Vaccines are not available to prevent human infection, whereas several vaccines are available to reduce transmission and the clinical manifestations of infection in dogs.