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Product title :

Prevention and management of avian influenza outbreaks: experiences from the United States of America

Author(s) : D.A. Halvorson

Summary :

The epidemiology and control of avian influenza (AI) are complex. The virus is transported in nature by the activities of wild birds and in commercial poultry by the activities of people. In general, all the outbreaks of AI in the United States of America (USA) have involved AI virus spread by the movement of poultry and manure and objects contaminated by poultry and manure, but the specific cause of spread has been different for most outbreaks. The 1924 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) outbreak was spread halfway across the USA by contaminated rail cars and poultry crates; the 1983 HPAI outbreak was spread by the movement of people between farms and transport of live and dead poultry, including depopulation efforts; whereas low pathogenicity AI (LPAI) outbreaks in different states were spread by people and equipment, partial flock removal, transport of spent hens and/or manure, and transport of dead birds for rendering.
Avian influenza – Control – Controlled marketing – Epidemiology – Lessons learned – Prevention – Stamping out – United States of America.

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